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Saturday, 10 March 2018

The Future Perfect

Original website



Callum            
Hello and welcome to 6 Minute Grammar with me, Callum.

Finn          
And me, Finn.

Callum          
Today’s programme is all about the future perfect verb form.

Finn
Yes, by the end of this programme, you will have learnt how and when to use this form.

Callum          
So there was our first example: you will have learnt...

Finn
You’ll hear lots more examples in the programme…

Callum
And we’ll have a quiz. Now, we usually use the future perfect to talk about an event that we predict or expect to happen or finish before a particular time in the future. Listen to this example from Feifei.

Feifei
By the time Christine arrives, we’ll have had dinner.

Callum
So we’ll have had, that’s we will have had - in the future perfect tells us that we will finish dinner before Christine gets back. We might be having dinner right up to just before she returns or we might finish it an hour before …
 
Finn
… but in any case, we will finish before she arrives.

Callum
We are using the future perfect to make a prediction about the future. Here are some more examples.

Feifei
This time next year, I will have finished my course.
Sales will have increased by 20 per cent by next January.
By 2020 the city’s population will have doubled.

Finn
Now we usually use a time phrase with the future perfect, often with by or in. Let’s hear examples with by again:

Feifei
Sales will have increased by 20 per cent by next January.
By 2020 the city’s population will have doubled.

Finn
And here are some more examples with a by time phrase.

Feifei
By the summer I’ll have finished all my exams.
We’ll have moved house by Christmas.

Callum
So we had by next January, by 2020, by the summer and by Christmas. We can also say by the winterby the end of the week

Finn
by next month or next yearby this time next week… 

Callum
In fact you can pretty well use by… with any future date, month, season or special day.

Finn
Very special day. Another time expression with by we can use with the future perfect is by the time that…plus a subject and verb. Listen to the example we had earlier, and check out the tense.

Feifei
By the time Christine arrives, we’ll have had dinner.

Callum
It’s the present simple - arrives.

Callum
When we use in for a time phrase with the future perfect, we can use it with a day, a month, a date, a time period. Here are some examples.

Feifei
In fifty years' time, sea levels will have risen by several centimetres.
In June I’ll have been unemployed for five months.
In 2050, I believe robots will have replaced sales assistants in shops.

Finn
As well as for future plans and predictions, we can also use the future perfect to talk about what we believe or imagine has or hasn’t happened at the moment of speaking…

Callum
…or in other words, to make educated guesses in the present about the past. Here are some examples.

Feifei
There’s no point in calling Judy. She’ll have left by now.
Let’s hurry! The film won’t have started yet.
If he’s on schedule, Tom will have arrived in Bangkok yesterday.

Callum
So we assume that Judy has already left….

Finn
And the film hasn’t started...

Callum
And Tom has arrived in Bangkok.

Finn
Now, to form the future perfect we use subject plus will or won’t plus have and the past participle of the main verb.

Feifei
By the summer I’ll have finished all my exams.
The film won’t have started yet.

Finn
Notice that we usually use short forms, so it’s I’ll, he’ll, they’ll and so on; and will not becomes won’t.

Callum
For questions, it’s will or won’t plus subject plus have plus the past participle.

Feifei
Will you have finished reading all the reports by this afternoon?

IDENT
6 Minute Grammar from BBC Learning English.

Finn
We're talking about the future perfect verb form.

Callum
So, to recap, we use the future perfect to predict events that will have happened before a particular time in the future…

Finn
…and to make educated guesses about things happening around now and even in the past.

Callum
And we usually use short forms.

Finn
So, it’s time for our quiz. Which is correct?
Number one.
a) By 2060, scientists will have found a cure for cancer.
b) By 2060, scientists will found a cure for cancer.

Callum
It’s a) By 2060, scientists will have found a cure for cancer.

Finn
I hope so, now
Number 2.
a) Jackie won’t have woken up yet. It’s too early.
b) Jackie won’t have wake up yet. It’s too early.

Callum
It’s a) Jackie won’t have woken up yet. It’s too early.

Finn
Finally,
Number three.
a) Will have you done all your work by two?
b) Will you have done all your work by two?

Callum
And the answer is b) Will you have done all your work by two?

Finn
That’s correct and it’s the end of the show. There's lots more about this on our website at bbclearningenglish.com. Join us again for more 6 Minute Grammar soon.

Both
Bye.

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